The glossary below defines significant terms from
our course. Additional terms will be added as they come up in the
reading and discussions.
proper names of angelic and demonic beings, see Karel van der
Toorn, Pieter W. van der Horst and Bob Becking, Dictionary
of Deities and Demons in the Bible (DDD), rev. ed. (Grand
Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans, 1995), in the Reference
Room at Orradre.
of the following definitions have been adapted from John Corrigan,
Frederick M. Denny, Carlos M. N. Eire, and Martin S. Jaffee, "Glossary,"
in Jews, Christians, Muslims: A Comparative Introduction to
Monotheistic Religions (Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice
Hall, 1998) 494-508, and Donald Senior, et al., eds., "Glossary,"
in The Catholic Study Bible (New York: Oxford University
Press, 1990) 425-39.
second century C.E. Christian heresy
which held that Jesus was not the eternal son of God with God
from the beginning of time, but was rather "adopted" by God
as divine either at birth or at his baptism.
Because this belief is about the nature of Christ, it is a Christological
heresy (see Christology).
figure or figures mentioned in the Johannine literature who
masquerade as Christ or as Christian believers but who are portrayed
as devils in disguise. Their presence signifies the time of
the end before the return of the Messiah (1 John 2:18, 22; 4:3;
2 John 7).
for "against the law," a term applied to Paul by his Jewish-Christian
foes because of Paul's opposition to circumcision
and rigorous observance of kashrut
(Jewish dietary laws) for Gentile converts
modern European racist ideology that first understands Jews
as a race and second understands that race as inferior and degenerative
of cultures in which Jews are assimilated.
for "revelation," a genre of literature common in social crises
or circumstances of persecution, characterized by: 1) a method
whereby a prophecy or event from the past associated with a
wise figure or religious intermediary (story)
is applied to the present day (discourse)
to render the meaning of the present chaos clear; 2) mythic
features such as a view of God as lord of history, a view
of time divided into two ages (the present evil age and the
future age of God's reign, a view of ethics that is sharply
dualistic, a view of the cosmos which is also binary, envisioning
a heavenly plane and an earthly plane with parallel histories,
and an esoteric language of visions and symbols that communicate
meaning; and 3) and a sense of urgency about time that
senses an imminent end of time. Biblical apocalyptic literature
flourished from 200 B.C.E. to 200 C.E.
apothegm; a wise or pithy saying, a proverb (see the definition
of chreia below and a more
complete definition of apophthegm).
for "one dispatched or sent off, an envoy"; within Christian
circles this term came to mean one sent forth by God (or Jesus)
for a mission. The term or role is used within the New Testament
of the eleven disciples closest to Jesus who survive his death,
as well as Mary Magdalene (John 20:17-18), Paul (Gal 1:1) and
Junia (Rom 16:7), it came to be understood as a status proper
Christological heresy that maintained that the Son of God, because
he was generated from God, could not be God, because God is
not a generated being (see Christology).
location of the final battle of earth's history as described
in the Book of Revelation. The name appears only once in the
Bible, and then in Greek, but is probably based on the Hebrew
for "mountain of Megiddo." Megiddo was a common battleground,
located as it was in a valley along the trade route between
Egypt and Mesopotamia (see Judg 5:19). Most notably, it was
the battleground where Pharaoh Neco's army killed King Josiah
in 621 B.C.E. (2 Kgs 23:29-30; 2 Chr
35:22; Zech 12:11).
the Greek for "exercise, practice, training," rigorous physical
practices of abstention (e.g., fasting, vegetarianism, celibacy),
bodily afflictions (hair shirts, chains), or physical withdrawal
from society (cave-dwellers, stylites [people who sit on pillars]),
with the intent of ethical or spiritual purification. Ascetic
behavior represents a range of responses to social, political,
and physical worlds often perceived as oppressive or unfriendly,
or as stumbling blocks to (heroic) personal or communal goals,
lifestyles and commitments. The locus classicus for Christian
asceticism is 1 Cor 7.
Christian ritual understood to cleanse a person from sin and
initiate them into Christian life and community, possibly originating
in Jewish purification rituals.
cleric who oversees the administration of a diocese, an administrative
region of the church.
typical biblical form of speech that begins, "Blessed be…" (cf.
Matt 5:3-12 and a more complete description of the beatitude
form at Literary
biblical form found in the prophetic books whereby God calls
the person to convey a message, usually set in the heavenly
court or its earthly equivalent, the temple. The four component
parts of a call narrative are the initial call, the prophet's
recognition of his/her unworthiness, a solemn commissioning,
and the characteristic message (see a more complete description
the Greek word for measuring rod, this refers among other meanings
to the rule by which something was judged, and particularly
to the official list of books judged to be authoritative scriptures
by a given community. The Protestant canon of the Old
Testament largely follows the Jewish canon. It is therefore
smaller than the Catholic canon, which includes several of the
extra books found in the early Greek translation of scripture,
the Septuagint (see Comparison
of Jewish and Christian Canons). The Eastern Orthodox
churches, which still use the actual Greek version of the Old
Testament, recognize all of the Septuagint's extra books in
state of abstention from sexual intercourse.
for "grace, gift," understood in the New Testament churches
as one of several possible manifestations of the presence of
the Holy Spirit (e.g., wisdom, knowledge, faith, healing, mighty
deeds, prophecy, discernment of spirits, tongues, interpretation
of tongues; see 1 Cor 12:1-11).
story told or written to highlight and contextualize an apophthegm
(see the descriptions of chreia
online at Literary Forms).
branch of Christian theology that explores the person, nature,
and function of Christ. High Christology emphasizes the divinity
of Christ; its heretical extreme is Docetism, which argues that
Jesus only appeared human but was in reality completely divine.
Low Christology emphasizes the humanity of Christ; its heretical
extreme is Arianism, which argues that since God cannot be generated,
and Jesus was generated as a human, Jesus cannot be God.
removal of the foreskin of the penis in males, performed ritually
within Judaism eight days after the boy's birth as a sign of
the boy's participation in the covenant
between God and the Jewish people (Gen 17:9-14).
for "study of the universe," any comprehensive system of understanding
and accounting for the universe and its movements.
covenant is an agreement between two parties. Covenants in antiquity
were diplomatic and economic in nature, much as today, and the
literary conventions of these ancient covenants were used to
portray the relationship between God and Israel. There are several
covenants in the Bible: with Noah (Gen 9), with Abraham (Gen
15; 17), with Moses (Exod 20), with David (2 Sam 7:8-17), and
through Jesus (Matt 26:26-30; 2 Cor 3:4-18).
form of prophetic speech in which God brings suit against God's
people for violations of the covenant they share; as such, it
includes elements reminiscent of the covenant treaty: 1. Summons
of witnesses; 2. Historical prologue; 3. Violation of stipulations
(charges/speeches by plaintiff, defendant, witnesses); 4. Uselessness
of cultic acts of worship, atonement; and 5. Invocation of covenant
curses (verdict/sentence; see a more complete description at
the Latin credo, "I believe," a confession of faith;
in Christian tradition, any one of several prayers that affirms
basic Christian beliefs (some of the early Christian creeds
are available online).
group of over 800 manuscripts found between 1947 and 1956 in
various caves on the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea. The
bulk of the manuscripts were discovered in eleven caves near
a (probable) Essene settlement at Qumran, and include biblical,
parabiblical, apocryphal and sectarian writings as well as some
documentary texts (practice alphabets, deeds, contracts, letters).
for "dispersion," most commonly used of Jews living outside
the land of Israel anytime after the Babylonian
Exile, but also used by other groups (e.g., the Palestinians
in an ironic reference to their dispossession by Jews).
for "one who follows," a term used in scripture for students
of a master.
literary critical term for structure and purpose of a narrative
or other literary work, which coexists with the story
told (events [actions, plot] + elements [characters, space]).
The level of discourse is the more subtle level at which the
author's judgment and interpretation operate.
the Greek "to seem, to appear," the Christological heresy that
Christ only appeared to have a human body; in reality, he was
completely divine and not human (see Christology).
the Greek for "the assembly of those called out, the church";
the study of the Christian church: its meaning, its relationship
to Christ, and its forms and structures.
uttered in a state of divine possession, in which the human
being experiences inspiration or visions or transportation to
a supernatural sphere that transcends the human; from the Greek
"to stand apart from." This type of oracular speech is one of
the characteristic activities of the prophet.
for letter, an exhortation or written sermon intended for public
branch of theology that is concerned with the ultimate or last
things, such as the end of times, judgment, death, heaven, hell
(from the Greek for furthest, uttermost, extreme, end, + logos
for "the end," the end of times which is regarded as immanent
in apocalyptic literature.
Jewish apocalyptic group associated
with the Dead Sea Scrolls that lived from
approximately 165 B.C.E.–68 C.E.,
when they were eradicated by the Romans. The Essenes advocated
a return to Torah, and some among their
number held property in common and advocated celibacy.
the Greek "to give thanks," a central Christian ritual recalling
the Passover supper Jesus shared with
his disciples the night before he died; also, the bread and
wine understood by Catholics as consubstantial with Christ's
body and blood offered for human salvation.
for "one who proclaims the good news" or gospel, understood
in Christian tradition to apply particularly to the authors
of the four canonical gospels.
Greek "to show the way," the interpretation of scriptural texts.
exit or escape of Israel from Egyptian captivity, recounted
in the book of the same name. The book in its final form dates
eight centuries after the events it describes (story
date c.1280 B.C.E.; discourse
date c.400s B.C.E.) and was
compiled from several sources, all of which factors complicate
the historical reliability of the account. CSB Map #2
depicts the route(s) of the escape based on the Exodus account.
secondary character or characters whose actions, by strong contrast,
underscore or enhance the distinctive characteristics of another
type of oral or written passage that can be isolated as a discrete
textual unit, with a clear beginning, an identifiable style,
and a standard ending. Often forms are repeated in a text for
study of the structure, content and function of literary or
oral units. "Function" includes the Sitz im Leben, or
"setting in life," in which these forms would have originated
(for example, temple ritual, forensic argument).
non-Jew; common Jewish term of reference in antiquity.
the Greek for knowledge, any one of a number of dualistic ideologies
popular particularly in mid- to late-antiquity that espoused
a path of spiritual ascent through the secret, complex structures
of the cosmos and away from the evil material world. (see Gnosticism:
Resources for Study).
English term for good news (godspell), a translation
of the Greek term for the same; a literary genre represented
in the New Testament by four books (Matthew, Mark, Luke and
John) and in the New Testament apocrypha
by sixteen other books. The canonical gospels tell the story
of the public life, death, and resurrection of Jesus. They were
written between 65–100 C.E.
the Hebrew, "to tell or declare"; Jewish tales, anecdotes, and
other traditions about history or theology that appear in rabbinic
literature like the Talmud and the midrashim.
They are different from halakhic traditions,
which concern legal and ritual matters. In the absolute sense,
this term often refers to the retelling of the Exodus story
during the Passover seder ritual.
the Hebrew word for "walk," the "way" or "procedure" for acting
according to the biblical commandments and thus living an ethical
life. As part of oral Torah, these traditions
about legal and ritual matters appear in rabbinic
literature, and are to be distinguished from haggadic
traditions which concern historical or theological matters (see
akhlaq, the Muslim equivalent).
dynastic family of priests who governed Judah and Israel in
the wake of the Maccabean Revolt
until the Roman conquest (152–63 B.C.E.).
graecized culture that spread throughout the Mediterranean world
in the wake of the conquests of Alexander the Great (d.323
B.C.E.) and remained prominent during
the period of Roman hegemony.
the Greek "choice," in religious vocabulary a choice for a teaching
about the faith which the dominant or orthodox church holds
to be contrary to that faith.
the Greek "to interpret or explain," the science and methodology
the Greek "other or different opinion," any position that differs
from accepted teaching (see also orthodoxy).
for "substance," the term used to describe the unity of the
person of Jesus Christ in early Christological debate while
accepting his two natures, divine and human (see Christology).
Christian belief that God became flesh (Latin in + carne)
in Jesus of Nazareth.
temporary period of habitation in a temple in anticipation of
divine revelation or in petition for a particular request.
story of the birth of Jesus, recounted in very different ways
by Matthew 1–2 and Luke 1–2. The infancy narrative is a standard
feature of the ancient literary genre of biography. Biographies
were reserved for important individuals, and in their infancy
narratives certain elements and motifs are standard (race, country,
ancestors, parents, phenomena at birth).
the Latin "to walk between," an entreaty on behalf of another;
one of the characteristic prophetic activities.
use of words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning;
an expression marked by such a deliberate contrast between apparent
and intended meaning; incongruity between what might be expected
and what actually occurs.
adherent of the Jewish faith, particularly after the exile
of Judeans to Babylon.
central place of worship and prayer in the biblical period.
Solomon built a huge edifice in Jerusalem in the mid-10th century
B.C.E. with the income from heavy taxes
imposed on the people. When the nation split after his reign,
it was partly because of this temple; northern Jews had their
own shrines (Shechem, Bethel, Dan, Gilgal), and had always opposed
centralized worship. The common people in both north and south
also resisted centralized worship: archeologists have discovered
scores of hilltop memorial shrines to ancestors, small temples
to local fertility and astral deities, and remnants of household
shrines. The Jerusalem temple was destroyed by the Babylonians
in 587–586 B.C.E., rebuilt by during
the restoration (see Ezra and Nehemiah),
expanded by Herod the Great in 37–4 B.C.E.,
and destroyed by the Romans in 70 C.E.
Much of biblical law treats the laws of worship and cultic sacrifices
that took place in the Temple (thanksgiving, atonement, free-will
system of Jewish dietary regulations that includes prohibitions
against certain foods such as pork and certain food combinations,
such as meat and dairy (Lev 7:22-27; 11).
member of the Israelite clan charged with responsibility for
Israel's worship. The Levites traditionally owned no land, but
took turns at Temple service and derived their income from the
offerings of money and food brought there. The Levites' cultic
functions included receiving and storing offerings, preparing
the daily sacrifices, and singing and instrumental accompaniment.
biblical form in which one's kin are listed; may be either segmented
or linear. Segmented genealogies emphasize lateral relationships
between contemporary kin, while linear genealogies emphasize
the bloodline of a particular present descendent (see a more complete description
at Literary Forms).
for "a work of the people," originally a public service performed
at an individual's expense; later worship services in general.
for "word," a term that came to be applied particularly to Jesus
Christ as the divine Word made flesh.
Jewish revolt led by Judas Maccabbeus (= "the Hammer") and his
family against the Hellenizing reforms of the Seleucid King
Antiochus IV (175-152 B.C.E.). Antiochus'
persecution of the Jews and their way of life prompted the composition
of the apocalyptic Book of Daniel.
for "witness," the standard legal term for observers at the
execution of economic transactions, legal affairs, and everyday
events. The term came to have the specialized meaning of "one
who testifies to the faith" in Jewish and Christian circles
during the persecutions of 200 B.C.E.–200 C.E.
(the period when apocalyptic literature
for "anointed one," a kingly, prophetic, or priestly figure
envisioned during and after the Babylonian
exile as savior of the Jewish people who would restore their
political/religious autonomy. Applied by Christians to Jesus
("Christ" is the Greek equivalent of "messiah") and by Jews
throughout history to a handful of leaders (e.g., Simon bar
Kokhba, 132–135 C.E., Shabbatai
Zevi, 1626–1676 C.E.).
the Hebrew "to interpret, to explain," the halakhic
or haggadic traditions transmitted as
an explanation or commentary on a biblical verse. There are
separate volumes of midrashim for each of the biblical
Christian belief in the literal thousand-year period of peace
and well-being in the end times associated with the reign of
Christ and the binding of Satan, based
on Revelation 20:1-5. Various Christian groups debate whether
Christ's coming will inaugurate the thousand-year reign (premillennialists)
or conclude it (postmillennialists; the first coming was the
one that the New Testament recounts). Still other Christians
do not take the thousand-year reign literally (amillennialists).
biblical form of related the story of a singular occurrence,
usually a healing or a demonstration of power over nature. The
characteristic elements of the miracle story are the narrative
setting, the approach to the god, a description of the illness,
an announcement of the cure, and a public acknowledgment (see
a more complete description at Literary
the Hebrew "to repeat, do again," this refers to the "repetition"
or "second version" of the law, that is, a collection of legal
and procedural interpretations of the law codified by the rabbinic
academy of Yavneh c.200 C.E. It
includes some haggadic material as well.
topos or element—a type of incident, device, or formula—which
recurs frequently in a work.
Christian name for the Christian scriptures, that is, for the
revelation about Jesus Christ. The term "testament" means something
that testifies or witnesses to something; in this case the scriptures
attest to God's relationship with the new Israel, those who
believe in the Christ. The shape and number of books in the
New Testament differ among the major Christian denominations
(see the online chart).
for "hidden," books of Christian pious literature that are not
in the Christian canon (available online).
study of the supernatural power of numbers and their influence
over human affairs.
Christian name for the Jewish Bible, that is, for the revelation
that predates Jesus Christ. The term "testament" means something
that testifies or witnesses to something; in this case the scriptures
attest to God's relationship with Israel. The shape and number
of books in the Christian Old Testament differ somewhat from
the Jewish canon (see the online chart).
Greek for "hidden," works that were included in the Greek version
of Tanak (the Septuagint)
but were not included in the Jewish canon.
Because these books were in the Septuagint, they came into Christian
Bibles. Many or all are considered canonical by Catholics and
eastern churches, while they are considered "deuterocanonical"
or simply as pious literature by Protestants (available online).
Greek for "false writing," works written by later authors in
the name of earlier biblical figures (available online).
the Latin orare, to speak or pray, a statement or prophecy
uttered at a cultic shrine through a recognized intermediary
(prophet, priest, shaman), often in the form of an enigmatic
statement or allegory.
the Greek "straight opinion," the accepted or dominant teaching
or position (see also heterodoxy).
parable is a comparison drawn from nature or common experience
in life designed to illustrate some moral or religious truth.
It is a common biblical form in Tanak and
in the New Testament (see a more
complete description at Literary
account of the passion, death, and resurrection of Jesus; probably
the earliest portion of the gospels to
be written. Passion narratives are found in all the canonical
gospels (Mark 14:1–16:8; Matt 26:1–28:20; Luke 22:1–24:53; John
event related in Exodus 12 whereby God delivers the Israelites
from captivity in Egypt by passing over their houses and slaying
the first-born sons of the Egyptians. Also, the annual ritual
recalling this event, and particularly the supper of symbolic
foods during which the story of Exodus
"five jars/scrolls," this is the Greek term for the first five
books of the Jewish Bible (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers,
and Deuteronomy), known in Hebrew as the Torah
or instruction. Scholars now believe that the first four of
these books were compiled over centuries from and by four different
traditions, the Yahwist, Elohist,
Deuteronomist (responsible for
the entire book of Deuteronomy as well), and the Priestly
(see Documentary Hypothesis, and two
online charts, The
Documentary Hypothesis and The
the Greek "cut all around," a discrete passage or story in a
group of Jews who lived in the late Second Temple period and
advocated a democratization of Jewish ritual law so that the
common people could partake in the sanctification that priests
enjoyed. The Pharisees believed not only in written Torah,
but in their own interpretation of that instruction (oral Torah).
Their oral Torah included the extension of laws for priestly
separation to lay people, as well as a belief in resurrection
from the dead.
journey to a sacred site or shrine.
for "father," this refers to the leading bishop of certain Christian
denominations (e.g., Roman Catholic Church, Coptic Church).
prophet is a religious functionary set aside or specially appointed
by (a) god for a number of religious and political tasks.
the Greek for "false name," the authorial stance of assuming
the identity of a more famous figure in whose tradition one
wishes to write; a common and accepted practice in antiquity,
though today considered plagiarism.
for the German "Quelle," or source; a hypothetical source for
the Gospels of Matthew and Luke that contained the material
they share word-for-word that is not in one of their other sources,
the Gospel of Mark; it consists mostly of sayings of Jesus (see
synoptic problem, Two
for "my great one, master, my teacher," a qualified teacher
of oral and written Torah.
form of Judaism in which Rabbis or teachers govern the authoritative
interpretation of written and oral Torah,
particularly in halakhic (legal, ethical)
matters. After the destruction of the Second
Temple and the consequent obsolescence of the priesthood,
rabbinic Judaism emerged as the
dominant (though not the only) form of Judaism, and continues
as such to the present day (see Chronology
and Major Branches of Judaism).
activity of collecting, arranging, editing and modifying sources
to adapt their message to new circumstances and the redactor's
study of the theological perspective of a biblical text evident
in its collection, arrangement, editing and modification of
member of the priestly family descended from Zadok, one of two
high priestly families under King David; the chief priestly
family in the Jerusalem Temple from the time of Solomon to the
destruction of the Second Temple in 70 C.E.,
and one of the chief ruling parties in Jerusalem from the time
of the Hasmonean dynasty (146 B.C.E.
– 70 C.E.). The ancient Jewish historian
Josephus describes them as religious conservatives who rejected
any teachings outside of the Torah, such as
resurrection from the dead, life after death, and the existence
of angels (see Chronology and Major
Branches of Judaism).
a group of people who lived in the former northern kingdom of
Israel, centered around the ancient capital of Samaria, who
after the Assyrian destruction and exile (721 B.C.E.)
had remained and intermarried with the non-Israelite peoples
transported to the region by Assyria. Religio-politically, a
conservative Jewish group that maintained the ancient paleo-Hebrew
script for their sacred writings (as opposed to the square script
introduced by foreign powers during Assyrian and Babylonian
hegemony), and, more importantly, who recognized only the Torah
as legitimate scripture (as opposed to Judean Jews, who had
expanded scripture to include the prophets and the writings).
The Samaritans have maintained their own temple and cult of
Jewish festivals on Mount Gerizim near Shechem from the late
fourth century B.C.E. to the present
day (CSB RG 195–6).
"a writing"; a written tradition vested with authority by a
community because it is understood to be sacred, holy, God-given.
referred to by its Greek equivalent, parousia (being
alongside, presence), the belief present in every strand of
New Testament tradition that Christ
will return in the future to establish fully the messianic reign.
during the period from the restoration
to the destruction of the Second Temple by the Romans, c.539 B.C.E.
– 70 C.E.
Syrian Hellenistic dynasty that controlled Palestine from approximately
200 C.E. until the Hasmonean
or Maccabean Revolt of 175–152 B.C.E.
The dynasty's attempts to enforce Hellenization
at the cost of Jewish law and tradition was the catalyst both
for the Revolt and for the composition of the Book of Daniel,
and seems to have played a role in the genesis of the Dead
Sea Scrolls community.
the Latin for seventy (septem  + ginta [decimal
suffix]), therefore abbreviated LXX, this is the name for the
main ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible with some
additional books, undertaken by Jews living in Egypt sometime
after 250 B.C.E. This was the premier
version used by early Greek-speaking Christians, and so became
the basis of the Christian canon. The name
"seventy" derives from a tradition that Ptolemy II (285–247
B.C.E.) commissioned 70 or 72 elders
to prepare the translation, a task they accomplished in a miraculous
identification and study of the different sources that lie behind
a text. Two famous source-critical hypotheses are the Documentary
Hypothesis (Torah) and the Two
Source Hypothesis (Gospels).
literary critical term for the story told — that is, the events
(actions, plot) and elements (characters, space) of a story.
The story level is distinguished from the level of discourse,
which is the structure of the story and the author's purpose
in telling it.
the Greek "to bring or gather together" and thus "community,"
the organized Jewish communities of the Hellenistic
world and their places of worship.
the Greek "with one eye," the three gospels
that tell the story of Jesus in largely the same way, sometimes
with passages that are identical word-for-word. These three
gospels are Matthew, Mark and Luke.
observation that, while the three synoptic gospels share much
material word-for-word, they are also significantly different.
The most accepted theories to account for this problem are 1)
the primacy of Mark; and 2) the Two
Source Hypothesis (see CSB RG 387; "Q"
the Hebrew "to learn, study," the compilation of Mishnah,
Gemara, and further rabbinic
discussion of halakah and haggadah.
There are two Talmuds, one compiled in Palestine during the
300s C.E. (the Palestinian or Jerusalem
Talmud, in Hebrew Talmud Yerushalmi), and a more comprehensive
work compiled in the Babylonian academies from 400–600 C.E.
(the Babylonian Talmud, in Hebrew Talmud Bavli).
for "the study of Torah," this refers to
the instruction, discussion and debate over the interpretation
of Torah that occurs in Jewish and rabbinic
Jewish name for their scriptures; an acronym in which each of
the consonants represents one of the three major divisions of
the Jewish Bible: "T" for Torah or instruction,
law (including the biblical books from Genesis to Deuteronomy),
"N" for Nevi'im or prophets (Joshua–Malachi), and "K" for Ketuvim
or writings (Psalms–2 Chronicles). The shape and number of books
in the Jewish Bible differ somewhat from Christian canon;
a complete chart
of the similarities and differences is available online.
of "testimonies" or scripture passages drawn from Tanak
by early Christians that were seen as pointing or attesting
to the coming of Jesus Christ. These testimonies
were drawn largely from the prophetic books, but also from the
law and writings (see Luke 24:25-27, 32, 44-48).
concept or teaching which a work is designed to emphasize and
make persuasive to the reader.
the Greek "words about God," the science or study of God.
Hebrew word for instruction, this term designates in its narrowest
sense the first five books of the Jewish Bible (Genesis to Deuteronomy),
and in its broadest sense authoritative teaching of whatever
source. Rabbinic tradition distinguishes
between God's revealed instruction disclosed preeminently in
scripture (the written Torah) and the subsequent interpretive
tradition of that revelation (oral Torah, some of which has
been compiled in written sources like the Mishnah,
the Gemara, the Talmud,
beliefs, customs, stories, laws, religious practices, and other
cultural phenomena that are considered valuable and are therefore
handed on from generation to generation. The Jewish and Christian
Bibles are a collation of traditions; once written, they themselves
become an artifact that must be interpreted, and so new traditions
theory that the authors of Matthew and Luke used two shared
sources for their gospels, the Gospel
of Mark and ""Q" (sayings of Jesus), in
addition to their own unique material. The theory is one way
of accounting for the synoptic problem.
typical form of prophetic speech, an autobiographical report
of the prophet's experience of divine revelation in the form
of something seen. The characteristic elements of the vision
report are the introductory report, the description of the scene
envisioned, and a question/answer between the prophet and one
of the envisioned (usually heavenly) beings (see a more complete description at Literary Forms).
Jew committed to rebellion and guerrilla warfare or terrorist
activity against the Romans, c.63 B.C.E.–70 C.E.
name for Jerusalem, used most often in poetic literature like