Annotated Bibliography

Involuntary Labor
Human Trafficking
Factory Conditions
Health Threats
Factory Culture

"Human Trafficking at Nike Contract Factory." Co-op America Quarterly Winter 74 (2008): 41. Print.
This article concerns factories contracted by Nike in In Malaysia. It discuses an investigation into a specific factory where working conditions were very poor. Workers have to pay an upfront fee of a years salary, live in crammed dorms, and have their passports confiscated. The only way to get their passports back is to buy them, which is very difficult on such low wages. These conditions make workers unable to find different jobs and keep them stuck working for sub-par wages in factories. 

Ballinger, Jeff. "Finding an Anti-Sweatshop Strategy That Works." Project Muse Summer 56.3 (2009): 5-8. Print.
This article helps clarify what percentage of money workers receive compared to the price a product sells for.  Workers who actually make the product receive by far the lowest pay. The local minimum wage of one of the factories studied in the article was 87 cents a day, not enough to survive on. Government policies allow for workers to be taken advantage off. When laws are put in place to protect low-wage workers, they are often disregarded or not substantial enough to make a difference.  This article also shows that factory workers being trafficked is a big problem. Many of the workers are forced into labor and have no choice to leave if they want to.

Iselin, Brian, and Melanie Adams. "Distinguishing between Human Trafficking and People Smuggling." United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 10 April (2003): 1-10. Print.
This article helps define and differentiate between the two terms human trafficking and people smuggling. It points out they are often confused, however they have different meanings. People smuggling is when a smuggler is paid to transport or help a person illegally enter a country or territory. Human trafficking is what is more likely to be seen in factory work; workers may or may not have consented to the job, but either way they end up being exploited. Human trafficking has a victim, such as a person forced into being working in a factory, while people smuggling has no victim except the country where immigration laws were broken. Factory workers who are victims of human trafficking are subject to violence and their liberties and freedom are taken away which is a serious human rights violation.

Andrees, Beate, and Mariska N.J. Van Der Linden. "Designing Trafficking Researc from a Labour Market Perspective: The ILO Experience." Data and Research on Human Trafficking: A Global Survey (2005): 55-74. Print.
The authors of this article explain their research on the subject of human trafficking and give advice on how future research should be conducted. The article states that only a few studies have been done about human trafficking concerning forced labor exploitation. Labor can be forced by penalties such as the loss of rights and privileges. Workers can also be tricked into labor by false promises or withholding identity documents, such as one factory did Nike contracted factory did to their workers.

"11 Facts about Human Trafficking." Do Something. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. <>.
This site contains facts, information, and statistics about human trafficking. It gives a general overview or the problem. Understanding how many million victims there are and how big of a problem it is helped strengthen my writing by allowing me to include these numbers and statistics.

Bigelow, Bill. "The Human Lives Behind the Labels: The Global Sweatshop, Nike, and the Race to the Bottom." Phi Delta Kappan 78 (1997). Print.
Bill Bigelow tells a story about a lesson he taught in a high school global studies class. He told the students to write a paper about an old soccer ball he had on his desk. Nearly all the kids described it physically and did not mention who made it or where it was made. His point is that low-wage factory workers are invisible in a sense. By keeping these workers out of sight from the consumers, human trafficking, abuse, and unfair wages are realties in factories in Asia. Factory workers have no voice and are oppressed by their employers and the societies that exploit their work.

Carty, Victoria. "The Internet and Grassroots Politics: Nike, the Athletic Apparel Industry and the Anti-sweatshop Campaign." Tamara: Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science 1.2 (2001): 34-48. Print.
This paper explains how the Internet is useful to creating positive changes in society. One of its focuses is on Nike factory conditions. The article states the Internet has raised awareness of the issues surrounding Nike factories. It discusses problems such as self-monitoring of work conditions. This is a problem in many of the factories Nike contracts to make its products.

Ehrenreich, Barbara. "Indroduction and Chapter 1: Serving in Florida." Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By In America. New York: Holt Paperbacks, 2008. Print.
Although the context of this book focuses on low-wage workers in America, many of the same issues and concerns can be seen in workers all over the world, including Nike factory workers in Asia. This book illustrates the idea that many low-wage jobs are dead ends. Workers are stuck and can’t advance higher in the company. Ehrenreich also brought to the attention of the reader that most low-wage jobs are often forgotten and not respected. Living paycheck to paycheck can cause extreme fear because of the instability. Ehrenreich learns from her experiences in America that corporations take advantage of their workers and managers can be abusive.  This idea is taken to an extreme in factories in Asia.

Schlosser, Eric. "Chapter 8: The Most Dangerous Job." Fast Food Nation: the Dark Side of the All-American Meal. New York, NY: Perennial, 2002. Print.
Schlosser’s “Chapter 8: The Most Dangerous Job” illustrates the mistreatment of low-wage workers. They are often taken advantage of and put in little care is put into the workers physical and mental health.  Schlosser uncovers a lack of standards and regulations to protect workers. This problem holds true in factories in Asia as well. Another issue that is seen in low-wage work is that workers are encouraged not to report injuries or visit doctors. Schlosser shows that companies do not value workers lives. The fine for a death in one slaughterhouse was only $480. Companies care about production and profit more than anything else, including the well being of their employees.

Lormand, Eric. "Facts and FAQs About Nike's Labor Abuses." Web. 15 Nov. 2011. <>.
This site was very useful to mean for finding facts and data about Nike factories. The site lists many issues with Nike factory working conditions. These issues rise from unfair pay to not giving workers protective gear while working with dangerous chemicals. It also touches on the idea of human trafficking, stating that many workers are tricked into labor and unable to leave after they begin. Another interesting and useful aspect of the page is that it compares Nike’s conditions to those of other companies. Unlike other articles I’ve read, it also brings to my attention the societies the factories are located in. Military dictatorships crush unions and worker strikes.

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